The Effectiveness of Peer-Led Team Learning (PLTL) in the Achievement of Seventh-Grade Students in the Subject of Science and Developing their Team Working Skills

  • Mahabad Mustafa Ahmed General Science Department, faculty of Education, Soran University, Kurdistan Region-Iraq
  • Sattar Jabbar Haji Department of General Psychology, Faculty of Education, University of Zakho, Kurdistan Region-Iraq
الكلمات المفتاحية: Peer Led team Learning, Academic Achievement, Science Subject, Basic Education, Team Working Skills


   This research aims at investigating the Effectiveness of Peer-Led Team Learning (PLTL) in the Achievement of Seventh-Grade Students in the Subject of Science and Developing their Team Working skills. To achieve the objectives of the study, two null hypotheses have been set by the researcher. The population of the study was limited to the seventh-grade basic students for the academic year (2021-2022) at (Shahin basic School for Girls) which has been chosen intentionally. The sample of the study was purposefully chosen.  The researcher relied on the experimental design, with control and experimental groups. The experimental group has been taught according to the PLTL Strategy, while the control group according to the Traditional Teaching Methods. The sample consisted of (58) students, distributed over two groups; (28) students in the experimental group, and (30) students in the control group. The equivalence between the two groups was done on the basis of the variables. The researcher has prepared two tools. The first one an academic achievement test to measure the academic achievement. It consists of (30) multiple choice items. Second tool is the team working skills scale which consisted of (40) items. The validity and reliability of the tools have been duly confirmed.  After completing the administration of the tools, the data has been obtained by using statistical means, by using (T-test). The Results have shown that Using PLTL strategy in teaching the science subjects to the 7th grade basic students has no effect on students’ academic achievement. Using PLTL strategy in teaching has its own effect and positive influence on developing students’ team working skills, based on the results the researcher put some recommendations, and further future studies have been suggested.


1. Al-Fanjari, Abdul Fattah Hassan, Ibrahim, H., Hassan, Mohammed, Abdel Hamid Abdul Ati Abdul Shafi Ramadan. (2019). Improving teamwork among middle eighth-graders in Kuwait State by designing a teaching unit in technical education using collaborative learning application skills. Scientific Journal of Educational and Quality Studies and Research, 9(1), pp.133-154.
2. Al-Sawi Abdul Sattar Ahmed, (2019). The effectiveness of the cube strategy in teaching social studies to develop some of the skills of historical imagination and the trend towards teamwork among primary school students. Journal of Education College (Assiut), 35 (8), pp.216-259.
3. Arendale, D.R. (2004). Pathways of persistence: A review of postsecondary peer collaborative learning programs.
4. Beins, B.C., 2017. Research method: A tool for life. Cambridge University Press.
5. Brookes, R. (2019). June. Developing Teamwork Skills in Student Science Students: The Academic Perspective and Practice. In Proceedings of The Australian Conference on Science and Mathematics Education (pp. 137-149).
6. Bensimon, E.M. and Neumann, A. (1992). Redesigning Collegiate Leadership: Teams and Teamwork in Higher Education.
7. Britton, E. Simper, N., Leger, A., and Stephenson, J. (2017). Assessing teamwork in student education: a measurement tool to evaluate individual teamwork skills. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 42(3), pp.378-397.
8. Cracolice, M.S. and Deming, J.C. (2001). Peer-led team learning. The Science Teacher, 68(1), p.20.
9. Cemaloğlu, N. and Filiz, S. (2010). The relation between time management skills and academic achievement of potential teachers. Educational Research Quarterly, 33(4), pp.3-23.
10. Crebert, G., Patrick, C.J., Cragnolini, V., Smith, C., Worsfold, K. and Webb, F.( 2011). Griffith graduate attributes teamwork skills toolkit. Griffith Graduate Attributes Teamwork Skills Toolkit.
11. Davies, D. and McGregor, D. (2010). Teaching science creatively. Routledge.
12. EREN-ŞİŞMAN, E.N., Çiğdemoğlu, C. and Geban, Ö. (2018). Investigation of the Effect of Peer-Led Team Learning Model on University Students’ Exam Achievement in General Chemistry. Bartın University Journal of Faculty of Education, 7(2), pp.636-664.
13. Fazari, F. Al, Hammoud, M. S., & Fazari, M. Al. (2019). Effectiveness of a Group guidance program to develop teamwork skills among 11th grade in North Al Batinah Governorate in Oman. Journal research university, 41(44), pp.33-72.
14. Gosser, D.K. and Gosser, D.K. (2001). Peer-led team learning: A guidebook. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
15. Gosser, D. K., Cracolice, M. S., Kampmeier, J. A., Roth, V., Strozak, V. S., & Varma-Nelson, P. (2000). Peer-Led Team Learning: A Guidebook. 133.
16. Goñi, J., Cortázar, C., Alvares, D., Donoso, U. and Miranda, C. (2020). Is Teamwork Different Online Versus Face-to-Face? A Case in Engineering Education. Sustainability, 12(24), p.10444.
17. Goodwin, J.A. (2002). Development of Computer-Based Activities for Peer-Led Team Learning in University-Level General Chemistry.
18. Gosser, D.K. and Roth, V. (1998). The class chemistry project: Peer-led team-learning. Journal of Chemical Education, 75(2), p.185.
19. Gosser, D., Roth, V., Gafney, L., Kampmeier, J., Strozak, V., Varma-Nelson, P., Radel, S. and Weiner, M. (1996). Class chemistry: Overcoming the barriers to student success. The Chemical Educator, 1(1), pp.1-17.
20. Gilar-Corbi, R., Pozo-Rico, T., Castejón, J.L., Sánchez, T., Sandoval-Palis, I. and Vidal, J. (2020). Academic achievement and failure in university studies: motivational and emotional factors. Sustainability, 12(23), p.9798.
21. Gafney, L. and Varma-Nelson, P. (2008). Peer-led team learning: Evaluation, dissemination, and institutionalization of a college-level initiative (Vol. 16). Springer Science & Business Media.
22. Hollins, E. R. (2011). ‘Teacher Preparation for Quality Teaching’, Journal of Teacher Education, 62(4), pp. 395–407.
23. Hickman, K. (2016). The effects of peer-led team learning on pass rates, academic performance, and retention of under-represented minority students in STEM lessons (Doctoral dissertation).
24. Hockings, S.C., DeAngelis, K.J. and Frey, R.F. (2008). Peer-led team learning in general chemistry: Implementation and evaluation. Journal of Chemical Education, 85(7), p.990.
25. Haladyna, T.M.( 2004). Developing and validating multiple-choice test items. Routledge.
26. Järvelä, S., Gašević, D., Seppänen, T., Pechenizkiy, M. and Kirschner, P.A. (2020). Bridging learning sciences, machine learning, and affective computing for understanding cognition and affect in collaborative learning. British Journal of Educational Technology, 51(6), pp.2391-2406.
27. Hassard, J. and Dias, M. (2013). The art of teaching science: Inquiry and innovation in middle school and high school. Routledge.
28. Johnson, E.C., Robbins, B.A. and Loui, M. (2015). What do students experience as peer leaders of learning teams? What Do Students Experience as Peer Leaders of Learning Teams? Johnston, J. (2009). How to implement peer learning in your classroom.
29. Johnson, D.W. and Johnson, R.T. (1985). The internal dynamics of collaborative learning groups. In Learning to cooperate, cooperating to learn (pp. 103-124). Springer, Boston, MA.
30. Kapur, R. (2021). Up-grading Problem-Solving Skills: Indispensable in Providing Solutions to Different types of Problems. The Journal of Social Sciences Studies and Research, 1(04), pp.25-33.
31. Knight, V.F., Wood, L., McKissick, B.R. and Kuntz, E.M. (2020). Teaching science content and practices to students with intellectual disabilities and autism. Remedial and Special Education, 41(6), pp.327-340.
32. Kaveh, M.H., Hesampour, M., Ghahremani, L. and Tabatabaee, H.R.( 2014). The effects of a peer-led training program on female students’ self-esteem in public secondary schools in Shiraz. Journal of Advances in Medical Education & Professionalism, 2(2), p.63.
33. Little, A.W. (2006). Education for all: Multigrade realities and histories. In Education for All and Multigrade Teaching (pp. 1-26). Springer, Dordrecht).
34. Lacy, A.C. and Williams, S.M. (2018). Measurement and evaluation in physical education and exercise science. Routledge.
35. Land fear, M. and Innis, J. (1994). Improving Teamworking Skills of Vocational Home Economics High School Students through Collaborative Learning.
36. Lamina, O.G. (2020). Peer-Led Team Learning (PLTL), Student Achievement and Engagement in Learning Chemistry. International Journal of Quality in Education, 5(2), pp.1-26.
37. Li, M.P. and Lam, B.H.( 2013). Collaborative learning. The Hong Kong Institute of Education, pp.1-33.
38. Martin, R.E., Sexton, C.M., Franklin, T.J., Gerlovich, J.A. and McElroy, D. (2009). Teaching science for all children: An inquiry approach. New York, NY: Pearson.
39. Merkel, J.C. and Brania, A. (2015). Assessment of peer-led team learning in calculus I: a five-year study. Innovative Higher Education, 40(5), pp.415-428.
40. Nelson, A.G.(2018). Youth Teamwork Skills Survey: Manual and Survey.
41. Nelson, A.L.G. (2017). Development and validation of a survey to measure perceived team communication skills in middle and high school STEM out-of-school time programs (Doctoral dissertation, University of Minnesota).
42. National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. (1996). National Science Education Standards. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.
43. Nabi, Mawlood Hamad, Haji, Sattar, Jabbar. (2022). Research methodology in educational and psychological sciences. Al- Wadhah for printing. Amman: Jordan.
44. Nsengimana, O. (2020). The effectiveness of local entities in citizens’ complaints resolution. Case study of Rulindo District (Doctoral dissertation, University of Rwanda.
45. Prince, M. (2004). Does active learning work? A review of the research. Journal of engineering H-education, 93(3), pp.223-231.
46. Pehlivan, A. (2013). The effect of the time management skills of students taking a financial accounting course on their course grades and grade point averages. International Journal of Business and Social Science, 4(5).
47. Permana, T.I., Hindun, I., Rofi'ah, N.L. and Azizah, A.S.N. (2019). Critical thinking skills: The academic ability, mastering concepts, and analytical skills of student students. JPBI (Jurnal Pendidikan Biologi Indonesia), 5(1), pp.1-8.
48. Quitadamo, I.J., Brahler, C.J. and Crouch, G.J. (2009). Peer-led team learning: A prospective method for increasing critical thinking in student science lessons. Science Educator, 18(1).
49. Roach, S. and Villa, E. (2008). June. Enhancing peer-led team learning through collaborative learning. In 2008 Annual Conference & Exposition (pp. 13-549).
50. Stephenson, N.S., Miller, I.R. and Sadler-McKnight, N.P.(2019). Impact of peer-led team learning and the science writing and class template on the critical thinking skills of first-year chemistry students. Journal of Chemical Education, 96(5), pp.841-849.
51. Seymour, A. (2013). A qualitative investigation into how problem-based learning impacts the development of team-working skills in occupational therapy students. Journal of Further and Higher Education, 37(1), pp.1-20.
52. Strom, P.S., and Strom, R.D. (2011). Teamwork skills assessment for collaborative learning. Educational Research and Evaluation, 17(4), pp.233-251.
53. Snyder, J.J. and Wiles, J.R. (2015). Peer-led team learning in introductory biology: Effects on peer leader critical thinking skills. PloS one, 10(1), p.e0115084.
54. Samara, Nawaf Ahmed, and Al-Adely, Abdul Salam Musa. (2008). Concepts and Terminology in Educational Sciences, 1st Edition, Dar Al Masirah for Publishing, Distribution and Printing, Amman.
55. Sharifirad, G.R., Rezaeian, M., Jazini, A. and Etemadi, Z.S.(2012). Knowledge, attitude, and performance of academic members regarding effective communication skills in education. Journal of Education and Health Promotion, 1.
56. Tien, L.T., Roth, V. and Kampmeier, J.A. (2002). Implementation of a peer‐led team learning instructional approach in a student organic chemistry course. Journal of Research in Science Teaching: The Official Journal of the National Association for Research in Science Teaching, 39(7), pp.606-632.
57. Tsay, M. and Brady, M. (2010). A case study of collaborative learning and communication pedagogy: Does working in teams make a difference? Journal of the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning, pp.78-89.
58. Tarricone, P. and Luca, J. (2002). Successful teamwork: A case study.
59. Varma-Nelson, P. (2006 ). Peer-led team learning. Metropolitan Universities, 17(4), pp.19-29.
60. Wootton, K. (2014). Effect of using video materials in the teaching of listening skills for university students. International Journal of Linguistics, 6(4), p.200.
61. Xiao, Y., Parker, S.H. and Manser, T. (2013). Teamwork and collaboration. Reviews of human factors and ergonomics, 8(1), pp.55-102. DOI: 10.1177/1557234X13495181.
62. Zorlu, F. and Zorlu, Y. (2020). Investigation of the Effects of a Peer-Led Team Learning Instructional Model (PLTL) in Teaching the Simple Electrical Circuits Subject on the Seven Principles for Good Practice. Educational Policy Analysis and Strategic Research, 15(3), pp.249-266.
كيفية الاقتباس
Mahabad Mustafa Ahmed, & Sattar Jabbar Haji. (2022). The Effectiveness of Peer-Led Team Learning (PLTL) in the Achievement of Seventh-Grade Students in the Subject of Science and Developing their Team Working Skills. مجلة الفنون والأدب وعلوم الإنسانيات والاجتماع, (82), 145-175.