Motivation for WhatsApp use among Students at the University of Jeddah

  • Lowai G. Abed Assistant Professor University of Jeddah, College of Communication and Media, Department of Communication and Public Relations, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
الكلمات المفتاحية: WhatsApp, Motivation, Education, Communication

الملخص

As the twenty-first century has progressed, the processes of learning and imparting knowledge have increasingly followed a modern, digitized approach that makes use of modern communications. The recent and ongoing development of online communication platforms now allows millions of users to communicate with each other quickly and easily. WhatsApp, which is very popular with Saudi Arabian college students, is a social networking site that is primarily used on smartphones as an application for instant messaging. The research presented here explores the motivations that drive Saudi Arabian college students to use WhatsApp. Moreover, this research sheds light on the advantages and disadvantages of WhatsApp and elucidates the students’ perceptions of how WhatsApp use impacts the quality of their university education. This study is of an exploratory, qualitative design and the study sample comprised 23 undergraduate students from the University of Jeddah. An online questionnaire, containing open-ended questions, was used to identify the key factors that motivate students to use WhatsApp. The findings reveal that the simplicity and popularity of WhatsApp are the most significant factors in students’ decision to use it. The key advantages of using WhatsApp were found to be its fast speed and ease/efficiency of reaching recipients. Students indicated that they mainly used the app to establish or maintain contact with classmates and professors, and that they believed the use of WhatsApp had a positive effect on the quality of their education. However, while the app is clearly popular, some students reported the self-destructive nature of some WhatsApp messages as an important disadvantage.

المراجع

1. Abaido, G., & El-Messiry, H. (2016). Efficiency of WhatsApp as a means of disseminating educational information. IT & Knowledge Excellence, 5(2), 1-5. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/336835700_Efficiency_of_Whats_App_as_a_means_of_disseminating_educational_information
2. Alsaleem, B. I. A. (2013). The effect of "WhatsApp" electronic dialogue journaling on improving writing vocabulary word choice and voice of EFL undergraduate Saudi students. Arab World English Journal, 4(3), 213-225. https://www.awej.org/images/AllIssues/Volume4/Volume4Number3Sept2013/18.pdf
3. Barry, S., Murphy, K., & Drew, S. (2015). From deconstructive misalignment to constructive alignment: Exploring student uses of mobile technologies in university classrooms. Computers & Education, 81, 202-210. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0360131514002346?via%3Dihub
4. Bsharah, M., Gasaymeh, A. M., & Abdelrahman, M. B. (2014). The relationship between the use of social networking wites (SNS) and perceived level of social intelligence among Jordanian university students: The case of Facebook. International Journal of Psychological Studies, 6(3), 1. https://www.academia.edu/34821311/The_relationship_between_the_use_of_social_networking_sites_SNS_and_perceived_level_of_social_intelligence_among_Jordanian_university_students_The_case_of_Facebook
5. Bouhnik, D., & Deshen, M. (2014). WhatsApp goes to school: Mobile instant messaging between teachers and students. Journal of Information Technology Education: Research, 13(1), 217-231. http://www.jite.org/documents/Vol13/JITEv13ResearchP217-231Bouhnik0601.pdf
6. Boyd, D. M., & Ellison, N. B. (2007). Social network sites: Definition, history, and scholarship. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 13(1), 210-230. https://academic.oup.com/jcmc/article/13/1/210/4583062
7. Calvo, R., Arbiol, A., & Iglesias, A. (2014). Are all chats suitable for learning purposes? A study of the required characteristics. Procedia Computer Science, 27, 251-260. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1877050914000301
8. Deshen, M., Buchnik, D. & Brochson, S. (2014). Bar-Ilan University. Available at: http://meital.iucc.ac.il/ conf2014/Meital_ Conference_BL14_part_1.pdf
9. Gachago, D., Strydom, S., Hanekom, P., Simons, S., & Walters, S. (2015). Crossing boundaries: lecturers’ perspectives on the use of WhatsApp to support teaching and learning in higher education. Progressio, 37(1), 172-187. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/290339914_Crossing_boundaries_lecturers'_perspectives_on_the_use_of_WhatsApp_to_support_teaching_and_learning_in_Higher_Education
10. Chipunza, P. R. C. (2013). Using mobile devices to leverage student access to collaboratively generated resources: A case of WhatsApp instant messaging at a South African university. In International Conference on Advanced Information and Communication Technology for Education ICAICTE. https://www.atlantis-press.com/proceedings/icaicte-13/8846
11. Church, K., & de Oliveira, R. (2013). What’s up with WhatsApp? Comparing mobile instant messaging behaviors with traditional SMS. Paper presented at the 15th International Conference on Human–Computer Interaction with Mobile Devices and Services (pp. 352-361). https://www.ic.unicamp.br/~oliveira/doc/MHCI2013_Whats-up-with-whatsapp.pdf
12. Cifuentes, O. E., & Lents, N. H. (2011). Increasing student–teacher interactions at an urban commuter campus through instant messaging and online office hours. Electronic Journal of Science Education, 14(1). https://www.researchgate.net/publication/268029423_Increasing_Student-Teacher_Interactions_at_an_Urban_Commuter_Campus_through_Instant_Messaging_and_Online_Office_Hours
13. Doering, A., Lewis, C., Veletsianos, G., & Nichols-Besel, K. (2008). Preservice teachers’ perceptions of instant messaging in two educational contexts. Journal of Computing in Teacher Education, 25(1), 5-12. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ834086.pdf
14. Eid, M. I., & Al-Jabri, I. M. (2016). Social networking, knowledge sharing, and student learning: The case of university students. Computers & Education, 99, 14-27. http://iranarze.ir/wp-content/uploads/2016/12/E3153.pdf
15. Gon, S., & Rawekar, A. (2017). Effectivity of e-learning through WhatsApp as a teaching learning tool. MVP Journal of Medical Science, 4(1), 19-25. http://www.informaticsjournals.com/index.php/mvpjms/article/view/8454
16. Hamade, S. N. (2013). Perception and use of social networking sites among university students. Library Review, 62(6-7), 388-397. https://www.emerald.com/insight/content/doi/10.1108/LR-12-2012-0131/full/html
17. Jin, Y., Liu, B. F., & Austin, L. L. (2014). Examining the role of social media in effective crisis management: The effects of crisis origin, information form, and source on publics’ crisis responses. Communication Research, 41(1), 74-94. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/0093650211423918
18. Karpinski, A. C., Kirschner, P. A., Ozer, I., Mellott, J. A., & Ochwo, P. (2013). An exploration of social networking site use, multitasking, and academic performance among United States and European university students. Computers in Human Behavior, 29(3), 1182-1192. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0747563212002798?via%3Dihub
19. Khatun, A., & Al-Dhlan, K. A. (2017). Effectiveness of WhatsApp: A Social Media Tool for Student's Activities in Saudi Arabia. International Journal of Technology and Educational Marketing (IJTEM), 7(2), 17-23. https://www.igi-global.com/viewtitlesample.aspx?id=191226&ptid=158678&t=effectiveness+of+whatsapp:+a+social+media+tool+for+student%27s+activities+in+saudi+arabia
20. Lauricella, S., & Kay, R. (2013). Exploring the use of text and instant messaging in higher education classrooms. Research in Learning Technology, 21. https://journal.alt.ac.uk/index.php/rlt/article/view/1345/pdf_1
21. Lenhart, A., Madden, M., Smith, A., & Macgill, A. (2007). Teens and Social Media. https://www.pewresearch.org/internet/2007/12/19/teens-and-social-media/
22. Malka, V., Ariel, Y., & Avidar, R. (2015). Fighting, worrying and sharing: Operation ‘Protective Edge’as the first WhatsApp war. Media, War & Conflict, 8(3), 329-344. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/1750635215611610
23. Malecela, I. O. (2016). Usage of Whatsapp among postgraduate students of Kulliyyah of Education, International Islamic University Malaysia. International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and Science, 3(10), 236879. https://ijaers.com/uploads/issue_files/21%20IJAERS-AUG-2016-19-Usage%20of%20Whatsapp%20among%20Postgraduate%20Students%20of%20Kulliyyah%20of%20Education,%20International%20Islamic%20University%20Malaysia.pdf
24. Rambe, P., & Bere, A. (2013). Using mobile instant messaging to leverage learner participation and transform pedagogy at a South African University of Technology. British Journal of Educational Technology, 44(4), 544-561. https://bera-journals.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/bjet.12057
25. Raza, S. A., Qazi, W., & Umer, A. (2017). Facebook is a source of social capital building among university students: evidence from a developing country. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 55(3), 295-322. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/0735633116667357
26. Reeves, A. J., Alkhalaf, S., & A., M. (2019). WhatsApp as an educational support tool in a Saudi university. International Journal of Advanced Computer Science and Applications, 10(8), 394–401. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Ahmad_Reeves/publication/335694357_WhatsApp_as_an_Educational_Support_Tool_in_a_Saudi_University/links/5d79eaa7a6fdcc9961c12fa4/WhatsApp-as-an-Educational-Support-Tool-in-a-Saudi-University.pdf
27. Rosenberg, H. (2016). Media, teens & children: Consumption, habits and social practices. In: R. Mann & A. Lev-On (Eds.), Annual report: The Israeli media in 2015: Agendas, uses and trends (pp. 70-91). Ariel: New Media Research Institute, Ariel University.
28. Saudi Arabia social media statistics 2020. (2020, September 8). Retrieved November 15, 2020, from https://www.globalmediainsight.com/blog/saudi-arabia-social-media-statistics/
29. Smit, I. (2012). WhatsApp with BlackBerry: Can messengers (BBM) be MXit? Paper presented at the 14th Annual Conference on World Wide Web Applications. Cape Peninsula University of Technology, Cape Town, South Africa.
30. Sweeny, S. M. (2010). Writing for the instant messaging and text messaging generation: Using new literacies to support writing instruction. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 54(2), 121-130. https://ila.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1598/JAAL.54.2.4
31. van Rensburg, A., Conradie, D. P., & Dondolo, H. B. (2017). The use of the situational crisis communication theory to study crisis response strategies at a university of technology. Communitas, 22, 62-74. https://journals.ufs.ac.za/index.php/com/article/view/3293/3166
32. Vorderer, P., Krömer, N., & Schneider, F. M. (2016). Permanently online–permanently connected: Explorations into university students’ use of social media and mobile smart devices. Computers in Human Behavior, 63, 694-703. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0747563216304216?via%3Dihub
منشور
2021-02-02
كيفية الاقتباس
Lowai G. Abed. (2021). Motivation for WhatsApp use among Students at the University of Jeddah. مجلة الفنون والأدب وعلوم الإنسانيات والاجتماع, (64), 309-324. https://doi.org/10.33193/JALHSS.64.2021.418
القسم
المقالات