A Bird's Eye View of the Notion of Translation

  • Misbah M.D. Al-Sulaimaan Department of English - College of Education and Languages - Lebanese-French University – Erbil Kurdistan Region -Iraq
  • Lubna M. Khoshaba Department of English - College of Education and Languages - Lebanese-French University – Erbil Kurdistan Region -Iraq


Translation is a very comprehensive area. It has been viewed differently by theorists of translation. The main reason behind that is that there are many factors that affect its notion. Among these factors are: (1) to whom we translate,(2) from whom we translate,(3) what is the intention of the speaker or the writer or the addressor? (4) what are the needs of the receivers, or the addressees, or the readers ?(5) are we after didactic purposes for knowing the similarities and differences between languages in question or  are we after communicating other communities or nations? (6) are we after transferring the meaning conveyed by the speaker or writer or sender? (7) or are we after the force of the text(pragmatically speaking) ? ,among so many questions that can be raised about this comprehensive living notion. As is well-known, translation has been defined in terms of finding equivalence, and in terms of transference of meaning. It has also given so many notions such as process, product, horizontal, vertical, linear, lineal, semantic, communication, interlingual, intra-lingual, inter-semiotic, literary, non-literary. This paper will give an explanation to the notion of translation and answer the questions that have been raised so as to arrive at removing the ambiguities of such comprehensive notion of translation. Then, in the light of the findings and conclusions, the paper will give some recommendations for the translators and interpreters.


1. Al-Sulaimaan, M. M. D. and Sa’eed, A. A. (2007): “Some Problems of Translating Metaphorical Expressions in the Shakespearean Tragedy Macbeth into Arabic”. In: Adab Al-Rafidayn, No.46, pp.109-137.
2. Bell, R. T. (1991): Translation and Translating: Theory and Practice, London and New York: Longman.
3. Bassnett, S. (1991): Translation Studies, London and New York: Routledge.

4. Catford, J. C. (1965): A Linguistic Theory of Translation, London: Oxford University Press.
5. Hatim, B. (1997): The Translator as Communicator, London and New York: Routledge.
6. Holmes, J. S. Frans de Haan, and Anton Popovit (eds.) (1970): The Nature of Translation, The Hague: Mouton.
7. Jakobson, R. (1966): "On Linguistic Aspects of Translation", in Brower, A. A. (ed.). On Translation, New York: Oxford University Press, A Galaxy Book, pp. 232-239.
8. Hermans, T. (ed.) (1999): Translation in Systems, Manchester: St Jerome.
9. Steiner, G. (1998): After Babel: Aspects of Language and Translation, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
10. Kade, O. (1968): Zufall und Gesetzmäßigkeiten in der Übersetzung, Leipzig: VEB Enzyklopädie.
11. Koller, W. (1995): "The Concept of Equivalence and the Object of Translation Studies" Target, 7.
12. Lawedowski, Boguslave, P. (1978): Meaning and Translation: Philosophical and Linguistic Approaches, London: Duckworth.
13. Meethan, A and Hudson, R., (1972): Encyclopedia in Linguistics, Information and Control, Oxford: Pergamon Press.
14. Nida, E. and Taber, C. R. (1982): The Theory and Practice of Translation, Leiden: E. J. Brill.
15. Nord, C. (2007): Translating as a Purposeful Activity: Functionalist Approaches Explained, Manchester: St Jerome
16. Nord, C. (1991): Translating as a Purposeful Activity: Functionalist Approaches Explained, Manchester: St Jerome.
17. Popovič, A. (1976): Dictionary for the Analysis of Literary Translation,
i. Edmonton: Universityof Alberta.
18. Pym, A. (1992a): Translation and Text Transfer: An Essay on the Principles of Intercultural Communication, Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang.
19. Sager, J.C. (1994): Language Engineering and Translation: Consequences of Auto- mation, Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
20. Steinbeck, J. (1945): Cannery Row, London: Penguin.
21. Snell-Hornby, M. F. P. and Kaindl, K. (eds.) (1996): Trtanslation as Intercultural Communication, Amsterdam and Philadelphia, PA: John Benjamins.
22. Shuttleworth, M. and Cowie M. (1997): A Dictionary of Translation Studies, Manchester: St. Jerome Publishing.
23. Toury G. (1995): Descriptive Translation Studies-and Beyond, Amsterdam and Philadelphia, PA: John Benjamins.
24. Toury, G. (1980): In Search of a Theory of Translation, Tel Aviv: The Porter Institute.
25. Wilss, W. (1982): The Science of Translation, Tubingen: Narr.
كيفية الاقتباس
Misbah M.D. Al-Sulaimaan, & Lubna M. Khoshaba. (2020). A Bird’s Eye View of the Notion of Translation. مجلة الفنون والأدب وعلوم الإنسانيات والاجتماع, (54), 495-508. https://doi.org/10.33193/JALHSS.54.2020.152